The Trafalgar Chronicle New Series 8

THE TRAFALGAR CHRONICLE Dedicated to Naval History in the Nelson Era New Series 8 Journal of THE 1805 CLUB Edited by JUdITHE PEARSONANdJOHNA ROdGAARd In association with The 1805 Club

Text copyright © individual authors 2023 First published in Great Britain in 2023 by Seaforth Publishing, A division of Pen & Sword Books Ltd, George House, Unit 12 & 13, Beevor Street, Off Pontefract Road, Barnsley, South Yorkshire S71 1HN British Library Cataloguing in Publication data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 978 1 3990 3900 0 (paperback) ISBN 978 1 3990 3901 7 (epub) ISBN 978 1 3990 3902 4 (kindle) All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing of both the copyright owner and the above publisher. The right of the individual contributors to be identified as the authors of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, designs and Patents Act 1988. Pen & Sword Books Limited incorporates the imprints of Atlas, Archaeology, Aviation, discovery, Family History, Fiction, History, Maritime, Military, Military Classics, Politics, Select, Transport, True Crime, Air World, Frontline Publishing, Leo Cooper, Remember When, Seaforth Publishing, The Praetorian Press, Wharncliffe Local History, Wharncliffe Transport, Wharncliffe True Crime and White Owl. designed and typeset in Times New Roman by Mousemat design Printed and bound in the UK by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY

Contents President’s Foreword – Admiral Sir Jonathon Band 5 Editors’ Foreword – Judith E Pearson and John A Rodgaard 7 Articles on the 2023 Theme: The Navies of the Georgian Era – An International Perspective The Battles of Cape Finisterre, 1747 – Anthony Bruce 10 Hornet versus Peacock: The Lost Historical Significance 23 of the Single-Ship Actions of the War of 1812 – Nicholas James Kaizer Bombay Marine, the Vanguard and Precursor of the Royal Indian Navy 35 – Saikat Mondal Russian Naval Power during the Eighteenth Century 48 – Kenneth Flemming diplomacy, Restraint and Protection: The Actions of Saumarez’s 65 Baltic Fleet 1808–1812 – Andrew Venn In honour of the 500th Anniversary of the Royal Swedish Navy in 2022, three reprinted chapters for the recently published The Baltic Cauldron: Two Navies and the Fight for Freedom Introduction to Three Chapters from The Baltic Cauldron– Peter Hore 73 The Baltic Fleet 1715–1727 and Sir John Norris – Peter Hore 75 Vice Admiral Lord Nelson Threatens the Swedish Fleet 89 in Karlskrona 1801 – Christer Hägg Swedes at Trafalgar – Peter Hore 97

THE TRAFALGAR CHRONICLE Biographical Portraits ‘An Officer of Great Merit’: Captain Charles Cunningham 109 and the Nore Mutiny – Andrew Field Rodney and Kempenfelt: How They Were Related 122 – Hilary L Rubinstein A dead Captain and a Sunken Ship: The Fates of Sir Jacob Wheate 130 and HMS Cerberus in Bermuda – Judith E Pearson Articles of General Interest duke of Clarence Swords – Mark Barton 141 HM Schooner WhitingAfter Her Capture in 1812: 157 The Cartagena Privateer San Francisco de Paula – George R Bandurek ‘I only wonder any civilised nation can allow them’: 174 Nelson’s Actual Opinion of Privateer – Ryan C Walker Contributors’ Biographies 191 Notes 193 The 1805 Club 208 Colour Plate section between pages 96 and 97

5 President’s Foreword This year’s Trafalgar Chronicleshowcases the scholarship and talent of thirteen excellent authors from six countries. For this year’s theme, ‘The Navies of the Georgian Era – An International Perspective’, the editors received articles on the prominent navies of the Age of Sail: UK, US, India, Russia, Sweden, denmark, the Ottoman Empire, and France. No previous issue has contained such a compilation – a tour de force in capturing the naval history of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. I was particularly taken with an article by Saikat Mondal, a graduate student in Calcutta, who wrote about how the Bombay Marine trained under and supported the Royal Navy, becoming the Indian Navy. Even our most seasoned readers will learn something new from this unique piece. This issue also salutes the 500th anniversary (in 2022) of the Royal Swedish Navy with three excerpts from The Baltic Cauldron – a recently published comprehensive history of the Royal Swedish Navy. Many 1805 Club members contributed to this volume and some donated funding for the translation from Swedish to English. An introduction and two excerpts come from previous Trafalgar Chronicle editor, Peter Hore. Additionally, in this issue and on its cover, I am pleased to see the exquisite maritime artistry of our 1805 Club member, Captain Christer Hägg, Royal Swedish Navy Rtd. Through these theme-related articles and excerpts, readers will get a sense of how the navies of the Georgian era continuously vied with one another for naval superiority and control of the seas – sometimes in war with battles and blockades, sometimes in alliances and treaties, sometimes in diplomacy and finesse. Here, we can glimpse the foundations of today’s maritime world. As always, this issue offers excellent biographical portraits of Royal Navy officers who served with dedication, gallantry, and honour, under difficult and dangerous circumstances: Captain Charles Cunningham, Admirals Rodney and

THE TRAFALGAR CHRONICLE 6 Kempenfelt, and a new personage to many readers, Captain Sir Jacob Wheate. It’s one thing to conduct in-depth research on a single, well-defined, yet littleknown topic. It’s another thing to mould that research into a tale that makes for good reading. The three authors in the general interest section have done just that. Mark Barton documents the swords with which the duke of Clarence awarded naval officers. From Professor George Bandurek we have the astonishing saga of HMS Whiting– a Royal Navy ship lost to privateering and piracy. Finally, what did Nelson think of pirates and privateers? Ryan Walker lets our readers know. This issue of theTrafalgar Chroniclecombines skilful writing on fascinating topics and a lavish selection of seventy illustrations. Again, I convey my warm congratulations and appreciation to the editors and the writers who have contributed to another fine publication of The 1805 Club! AdMIRALSIRJONATHONBANdGCB dL Former First Sea Lord President of the 1805 Club

7 Editors’ Foreword disputes over territorial waters, shipping lanes, and fishing rights, the intent of ocean-based missile launches, responsibilities toward refugees afloat, and global concerns about climate change – one has only to read the daily headlines to know that the navies of the world are often at the centre of international conflict, trade, and diplomacy. The same was true of the Georgian era. Naval history is often about the interactions of navies as they extend the reach of their governments beyond their countries’ shores. These are the types of stories we wanted to capture in this 2023 issue of the Trafalgar Chronicle. That’s why we chose as our theme ‘The Navies of the Georgian Era – An International Perspective’. With this theme, our readers can see how international naval history provides the back-story for the many international tensions, rivalries and alliances of today’s geopolitical landscape. The 2023 edition offers fourteen well-written articles by authors from six countries on the leading navies of the Age of Sail. This edition presents articles on the navies of England, US, India, France, Sweden, denmark, Russia and the Ottoman Empire. This issue begins with an article by frequent contributor dr Anthony Bruce, writing about the Royal Navy’s Western Squadron’s two victories over the French at Cape Finisterre in 1747. Vice Admiral George Anson led the first battle and Rear Admiral Edward Hawke led the second. Andrew will take you right into the heart of each tense engagement! Nicholas James Kaizer, Canadian scholar and expert on single-ship actions of the War of 1812, examines the factors leading to Royal Navy defeats in the largely forgotten sloop actions of the War of 1812, and highlights their importance to the study of the Royal Navy in that war. We like to think that the Trafalgar Chronicle can welcome not only articles from established naval historians, but can also serve as an incubator for those who are just entering the field. Such is the case with college student Saikat Mondal of Calcutta who provides an erudite history of the Bombay Marine, and its support to the Royal Navy in India from 1607 to 1830, when the Marine became the Indian Navy. This scholar has certainly introduced a new topic to this journal! Next, we have Kenneth Flemming’s history of the eighteenth-century Russian Navy beginning under Peter the Great and revitalised by Catherine the

Great. By the time of her death in 1796, she had transformed a deteriorating fleet into a formidable naval power that contested the Black Sea and Mediterranean during her wars against the Ottoman Empire, and eventually dominated the Baltic in her wars against Sweden. As a result of these victories on land and sea, Russia expanded its territory into Ukraine, Crimea and Moldova. Catherine’s mercurial successor, Tsar Paul I, would send the Baltic and Black Sea fleets to join the Royal Navy and the Ottomans to oppose France’s designs on Italy, the dalmatian coast and the Greek Ionian Isles in 1798. Through naval historian Andrew Venn, we learn of Saumarez’s diplomacy in the Baltic; maintaining diplomatic ties with a neutral yet volatile Sweden, keeping the threat of the Russian fleet at bay, and defending against the fiery danish gunboat threat to merchant shipping. Andrew’s article makes a perfect segue to the next section in this issue – three chapters reprinted from The Baltic Cauldron: Two Navies and the Fight for Freedom, a richly illustrated compilation published in 2022 to document Sweden’s naval history and to commemorate the 500th anniversary of the establishment of the Royal Swedish Navy. Peter Hore opens this section with an introduction to the book itself, followed by three articles: two by himself and one by Captain Christer Hägg, RSwN, ret, a maritime artist whose work graces the cover of this issue. Both Christer and Peter are members of The 1805 Club and Peter is the former editor of theTrafalgar Chronicle. In Biographical Portraits we have Andrew Field’s stunning recounting of Captain Charles Cunningham’s daring actions and decisions when he extricated his ship, the Fifth Rate frigate HMS Clyde (38), from the Nore Mutiny. Next, dr Hilary Rubinstein documents the lives of George Brydges Rodney and Richard Kempenfelt, ‘two of the most capable and cerebral British admirals of George III’s reign’. She supplied genealogical research to reveal that they were cousins, although they could not have been more different in character. The next article is about Bermuda. A few years ago, Judy and John were visiting St Peter’s Church in St George, Bermuda, when they learned that the remains of Captain Sir Jacob Wheate RN had been found under the church floor in 2008. He and his ship, the Fifth Rate frigate HMS Cerberus (32), both met their ends in 1783 in Bermuda. Judy could not get this sad, dramatic tale off her mind and had to write about it. Our General Interest section offers a delightful collection of three informative, highly readable articles. First dr Mark Barton identifies, compares and contrasts thirty-five swords that the duke of Clarence gave as awards to Royal Navy officers between 1786 and 1834. dr George Bandurek provides a whopping good tale about HM Schooner Whiting – a ship that underwent several reincarnations after she was captured by a French privateer in 1812. THE TRAFALGAR CHRONICLE 8

This Bermuda-built schooner was the subject of lengthy court proceedings in America because when she was sold to the United Provinces of Granada, her new captain engaged in piracy. As an apt follow-on to dr Bandurek, Ryan Walker astutely analyses what Nelson thought about privateers. On a sad note, we mourn the loss of Liam Gaul, who passed away in January 2023. We met him in 2018 when we were in Wexford, Ireland, representing the Naval Order of the US. We were there for the unveiling of a historic marker describing the US Navy’s presence in Wexford in the First World War. Liam attended the event on the behalf of the Wexford Historical Society. He was the author of Wings over Wexford, a book about US Navy patrol aircraft flying over the Irish Sea to spot German submarines. Liam was a contributor to the 2021 Trafalgar Chronicle, with a biographical portrait of John Barry, Wexford’s native son who became the Father of the US Navy. Fair celestial winds and following seas, Liam! As always, we thank all our authors for their acumen as historians, and for their expertise in making maritime history memorable and rich in detail. We admire the depth of their research, their selection of illustrations, and the quality of their writing. They were all marvellously obliging and co-operative with our questions and requests for revisions and/or clarification. They made our work as editors easy and enjoyable. Next year, 2024 will mark our fifth year as editors to this journal. We have chosen as the theme for the 2024 issue: ‘Naval Intelligence in the Georgian Era’. We also want to know about events and personalities that shaped the navies of the world, 1714–1837. If you like to write and conduct historic research about all manner of things pertaining to the maritime world of the Georgian era, send us a proposal and/or get on our email list of potential contributors. To our readers: we welcome your comments, questions, ideas, and suggestions about this issue and future issues. Please tell your friends and colleagues about the Trafalgar Chronicle. We are eager to see reviews! Our publisher, Seaforth Publishing, welcomes purchases from individuals, organisations, universities, institutes and libraries. The 1805 Club members receive the Trafalgar Chronicle as well as Dispatches digital newsletters and the biannual Kedge Anchor magazine as benefits of their membership. If you aren’t a member of The 1805 Club, please join by completing an application at our website, JUdITHE PEARSON, PHd BURKE, VIRGINIA JOHNA ROdGAARd, CAPTAINUSN, RET MELBOURNE, FLORIdA EdITORS’ FOREWORd 9

The Battles of Cape Finisterre, 1747 Anthony Bruce In August 1746 Vice Admiral George Anson (1697–1762), the circumnavigator and Admiralty Lord, took command of the new Western Squadron, which had been created in response to the threat of a French invasion and the need to improve the navy’s performance. War between the two countries had been declared shortly after Britain’s failure at the Battle of Toulon in 1744, which led to the dismissal of Admiral Thomas Matthews, head of the Mediterranean Fleet. British naval operations against France (and Spain) formed part of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48), the wider European conflict between Prussia and Austria and their respective allies. The Western Squadron was formed by combining the navy’s previously dispersed forces in home waters and would soon form the core of Britain’s future naval strategy.1 Its principal role was to cruise off the Western Approaches (the area to the west of the English Channel) for as long as possible, with several objectives in mind. These included the protection of British merchant shipping, providing a defence against invasion and monitoring the movements of the French fleet at its main bases on the Atlantic coast – Brest, Lorient and Rochefort – with the aim of intercepting convoy departures, as well as fleets returning from overseas. This article examines the Western Squadron’s two victories over the French, both off Cape Finisterre; the first led by Anson and the second by Rear Admiral Edward Hawke (1710–1781). 10 George, Lord Anson, commander of the Western Squadron, 1746/7. Stipple engraving by Ridley, after Joshua Reynolds. Published in Naval Chronicle, vol 8 (1802) by J Gold, London. (Naval History and Heritage Command,Washington, DC, NH 65992)