The Trafalgar Chronicle New Series 5

THE TRAFALGAR CHRONICLE Dedicated to Naval History in the Nelson Era New Series 5 Journal of THE 1805 CLUB Edited by JUDITHE PEARSON, SEANHEUVEL& JOHNRODGAARD In association with The 1805 Club

Text copyright © individual authors 2020 First published in Great Britain in 2020 by Seaforth Publishing, A division of Pen & Sword Books Ltd, 47 Church Street, Barnsley S70 2AS British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 978 1 5267 5962 7 (PAPERBACK) ISBN 978 1 5267 5963 4 (EPUB) ISBN 978 1 5267 5964 1 (KINDLE) All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing of both the copyright owner and the above publisher. The right of the individual contributors to be identified as the authors of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. Pen & Sword Books Limited incorporates the imprints of Atlas, Archaeology, Aviation, Discovery, Family History, Fiction, History, Maritime, Military, Military Classics, Politics, Select, Transport, True Crime, Air World, Frontline Publishing, Leo Cooper, Remember When, Seaforth Publishing, The Praetorian Press, Wharncliffe Local History, Wharncliffe Transport, Wharncliffe True Crime and White Owl. Designed and typeset in Times New Roman by Mousemat Design Printed and bound in India by Replika Press Pvt Ltd

CONTENTS President’s Foreword – Admiral Sir Jonathon Band 5 Editor’s Foreword – Judith E Pearson, Sean Heuvel & John Rodgaard 6 Articles on the 2020 Theme: Portrayals of the Georgian Navy in Art, Film, and Literature Representations of Horatio Nelson in the Visual Arts: Heroic Portraiture Versus Historical Reality from a Medical Perspective – Gerald Stulc 9 William Beatty, Arthur Devis and the Death of Lord Nelson in Early Nineteenth-Century Literature and Art – Andrew Venn 33 Nelson in Caricature and Cartoon – Peter Turner 44 Tobias Smollett and the Early Georgian Navy – Anthony Bruce 62 Beyond Lady Barbara: Women as Portrayed in British Naval Fiction – Linda Collison 74 The Rise of the Fouled Anchor: The Visual Codification of the Royal Navy During the 1700s – Lily Style 87 Spain and American Independence: The Best-Kept Secret of the Georgian Age – Chipp Reid 93 Biographical Portraits Sir Andrew Pellet Green: Vice Admiral Thomas Fremantle’s Protégé – Charles Fremantle 105 Commander Sir James Pearl – Sean Heuvel 114 3

Captain John Houlton Marshall – John Rodgaard and Lisa Heuvel 121 Captain Ralph Willett Miller – Gerald Holland 137 Articles of General Interest The Popham Code Controversy – Chris Coehlo 141 Cornwallis, a Woman Named Cuba, and the Caribbean – Barry Jolly 156 A Second Naval War: The Immediate Effects of the American War on Royal Navy Operations, June 1812–July 1813 – Samantha Cavell 167 Contributors’ Biographies 175 Notes 179 The 1805 Club 200 Colour Plate Section between pages 128 and 129 4

President’s Foreword With its 2020 issue, the Trafalgar Chronicle stands at the threshold of its fourth decade. The journal has now transitioned to a new team of editors in Dr Judith E. Pearson, Dr Sean Heuvel, and Captain John Rodgaard USN, Ret. These three come from varied academic backgrounds and experience and are well-qualified for the task. They will most certainly carry on the fine work of the previous editor, Captain Peter Hore RN, Rtd. Judy, Sean, and John live in the US, where over 100 members of the 1805 Club now reside; almost a quarter of the club’s membership. The central theme for the current issue is the portrayal of the Georgian Navy era in art, literature, and film. The contributions by writer–historians are impressive, demonstrating the enduring influence of that era in portraits, caricatures, and films of Nelson and the Royal Navy, as well as mythological depictions, nautical symbolism, and historic novels about the Age of Sail. The writers and editors have drawn from their experience, education, and talents in diverse fields such as military/naval history, medicine, the fine arts, and journalism to bring forth a quality product. Much of the content is new research that has not been published elsewhere. Some of it revises and expands on what most readers already know about the era of the Georgian Navy. You cannot read this issue without finding something that is intriguing, surprising, memorable, and noteworthy! The editors have also decided that this issue and future issues of the Trafalgar Chronicle will continue to include biographic portraits of Nelson’s contemporaries, articles about technological advances in naval warfare of the era, battles at sea and their aftermaths, and the monuments and artefacts that help us to remember the Georgian era of the Royal Navy and Nelson. The theme for the upcoming 2021 issue will concern the Georgian Navy’s encounters with indigenous cultures and enslaved populations. The Trafalgar Chronicle is a vital aspect of The 1805 Club’s mission to preserve the naval history and memorials of the Georgian era and Nelson’s memory through conservation, education, research, and commemorative events. My hearty kudos (or should I say ‘Bravo Zulu’?) to the editors and my heartfelt thanks to the writers who contributed so generously to this year’s volume. ADMIRALSIRJONATHONBANDGCBDL Former First Sea Lord President of the 1805 Club 5

Editor’s Foreword As the Trafalgar Chronicle embarks on its fourth decade, we are delighted to take the helm from Captain Peter Hore RN, Rtd, the previous editor from 2015 to 2019. While all three of us have published books and articles and possess broad experience in writing and editing, for each of us this is a first experience in editing a scholarly research journal. In fact, as we look over the list of editors of the past issues, we feel honoured and humbled to be included in the pantheon. Captain Hore has generously given us his blessings and guidance as we undertake this new adventure. We are committed to maintaining his high standards. The theme for this 2020 issue is portrayals of the Georgian Navy in art, literature, and film. As proposals and submittals began arriving over the past year, we have felt astonished and excited by the quality of material we have received, the acumen of the authors, and the depth of their diligent research. Because our theme concerns the arts, we also received, to our amazement, almost 100 illustrations – some familiar to our readers and some quite rare. Our feature article is by Captain Gerald Stulc, Medical Corps, US Navy Ret. As a civilian, Captain Stulc is a retired cancer and trauma surgeon. His paper explores how paintings, drawings, and films have depicted Nelson’s ailments and battle injuries. Dr Stulc brings his medical knowledge to bear in discussing Nelson’s bouts with viruses and fevers as well as head trauma, impaired vision in one eye, a wound to his abdomen, the loss of his right arm and the circumstances of his death. We learn that the many depictions of Nelson seldom squared with medical reality. Yet, not only his victories but his injuries as well made him a hero in the eyes of his countrymen, who lionised him in death. Complimenting Dr Stulc’s article, historian Andrew Venn examines narratives and paintings of Nelson’s death. He sifts through the eyewitness accounts written by those who witnessed Nelson’s death and compares the paintings of West and Devis, who both portrayed his final moments. Venn sees Devis’ painting as being much closer to reality. West, however, compensated for his inaccurate illustration with a more masterful, allegorical painting of Nelson’s ascension to immortality. Cartoonist and writer, and the new editor of The 1805 Club’s Kedge Anchor, Peter Turner casts a light-hearted glance at the many ways Nelson’s image has 6

been captured in caricature and cartoon – sometimes in a flattering manner and sometimes not. Writer and educational consultant Anthony Bruce describes how Royal Navy surgeon’s mate Tobias Smollet drew on his real-life-at-sea experience to expose the dismal state of medicine in the Georgian Navy through his 1748 novel, The Adventures of Roderick Random. While the novel was published a generation before Nelson’s time, we can surmise that Nelson and his contemporaries encountered similar conditions aboard Royal Navy ships, minus, perhaps, the disreputable characters who swaggered through Smollett’s novel. For her article, novelist Linda Collison studied depictions of women in historic novels about the Georgian Navy. Such novels, some based loosely on real-life accounts, suggest that women played a much more pervasive role in naval operations than history admits. While it is well known that most wives tended to hearth and home while their men were away at sea, some wives joined their husbands to brave the perils of shipboard life. They served food, mended clothes, worked as powder monkeys and, during battle, as nurses. Some women even gave birth at sea and some were wounded or died in battle or from yellow fever. Of course, readers might also encounter the occasional female spy and the usual prostitutes as well, just for a change of pace. Emma Hamilton expert and direct descendant of Nelson and Hamilton, Lily Styles gives readers a treat: a discussion of the fouled anchor as a decorative motif. Introduced in 1758 on buttons on Royal Navy officers’ uniforms, the fouled anchor soon found a place on fine china and textiles, as well as becoming an emblem in the US Navy. Journalist/author and fellow 1805 Club North American member Chipp Reid delivers a must-read article on the ‘best-kept secret of the Georgian age’: the alliance between the Spanish Armada and the French Navy that helped Americans win their war for independence. Mr Reid applied his knowledge of Spanish to locate nearly ‘impossible to find’ evidence that the Spanish provided money, supplies, and munitions to the revolutionary cause. He also reveals how English-speaking historians may have biases about Hispanics, resulting in inaccurate portrayals of Spanish historical figures and the role they played during the American War. As we planned, this issue of the Trafalgar Chronicle also offers articles that focus on historic figures, battles at sea, technological advancements of the Nelson era, discoveries of artefacts, and the preservation of monuments and historical sites. Fellow 1805 Club member Charles Fremantle, a prolific writer and frequent contributor, provides an article on Sir Andrew Pellet Green, a protégé of Mr Fremantle’s ancestor, Vice Admiral Thomas Fremantle. We also have three biographical summaries on Commander James Pearl (by Sean EDITOR’S FOREWORD 7

Heuvel), Captain John Houghton Marshall (by John Rodgaard and Lisa Heuvel), and Captain Ralph Willet Miller (by Gerald Holland); all North Americans who became officers in the Georgian era Navy. Naval historian Chris Coelho travelled from his home in the US to his birthplace in Buenos Aires for research on Sir Home Popham, a controversial figure, and some would say a scoundrel, who, nevertheless, reinvented the signal flag system of the Royal Navy. Popham’s system was in effect when Nelson raised the famous signal at Trafalgar: England expects every man to do his duty. Admiral Sir William Cornwallis has been portrayed in his retirement years as a devout bachelor, living the quiet life as a country gentleman. Few naval historians would guess that, in his ‘wild’ youth, while stationed in the Caribbean, Cornwallis fathered at least three illegitimate children with women of colour. Barry Jolly of the Milford-on-Sea Historical Society conducted research on the Jamaica Church of England Parish Register in the International Genealogical Index to discover the details and bring them to our readers. North American 1805 Club member Dr Samantha Cavill, history professor at Southeastern Louisiana University, writes about the effects of the War of 1812 on Royal Navy Operations; particularly how the demands of war with America created massive problems for the Royal Navy in terms of logistics, expenditures, ships, personnel, and supplies; especially since Britain was concurrently engaged in war with France. Students of the War of 1812 will find a wealth of information and statistics in this article that will enrich their understanding. Working with authors such as these, our first year as editors of the Trafalgar Chronicle has been rich and rewarding. To our readers: we welcome your comments, questions, ideas, and suggestions about this issue and future issues. If you like to write and conduct historic research about all manner of things pertaining to the Royal Navy and other navies of the Georgian era, send us a proposal or get on our mailing list of potential contributors. The theme for the 2021 issue will be Georgian Navy encounters with indigenous cultures and enslaved populations. Tell your friends and colleagues about the Trafalgar Chronicle. Our publisher, Seaforth Publishing, is happy to issue new subscriptions to individuals as well as organisations, universities, institutes, and libraries. Contact us at Judith E. Pearson, Ph.D. Burke, Virginia John Rodgaard, Captain USN, Ret. Melbourne, Florida Sean Heuvel, Ph.D. Williamsburg, Virginia May 2020 THE TRAFALGAR CHRONICLE 8

Representations of Horatio Nelson in the Visual Arts: Heroic Portraiture Versus Historical Reality from a Medical Perspective Gerald Stulc Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson (1758–1805), 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, KB, was already a celebrated hero among the British populace by the time of the Battle of Trafalgar of 21 October 1805. Upon his death at age fortyseven at the hands of a sniper in that battle, he achieved mythic proportions that persist to this day. In perpetuating his heroism and his subsequent legacy, particularly in times of war and danger to Britain, the visual representation of Nelson among his countrymen necessitated a traditional rendering and reworking of the man in epic proportions. His representation in the visual arts – paintings, engravings, and film – is examined as it pertains to the expected heroic image versus what is known from reports of his physical and medical, and to a point, emotional conditions. The depictions of any given civilisation’s heroes traditionally portray them often as literally larger than life, perfect in physical form, domineering and victorious, whether it be of Ramses II, Octavian, or the Zeus-like sculpture of a bare-chested George Washington. Nelson entered service with the Royal Navy inauspiciously in 1771 at the age of twelve. He soon found that he suffered from seasickness, which would become a chronic illness often treated with peppermint. In support of the East India Company, he was sent to the Indies and Bombay in 1773. In 1775, he became ill with malaria, which was so severe that he nearly died. A coffin was prepared for him in the expectation that he would not survive the voyage back to Britain. In his febrile delirium, he experienced the vision of a glowing orb associated with the premonition that he was destined to become a hero. Nelson recovered, but while at Portsmouth in June 1777 he collapsed, apparently from another malarial attack. By 1780, he had been promoted to post-captain, and was part of Major-General John Dalling’s expedition to Central America against its Spanish colonies. During his trek up the San Juan River, Nelson began to experience chest pains, diagnosed as ‘gout’, a probable 9

recurrence of his malaria. In subsequently besieging the Spanish Fort of San Juan, he was one of the first of his men to fall ill, either from typhoid or yellow fever (‘yellow jack’), or, less likely but asserted, poisoning from drinking water into which the highly toxic fruit of the manchineel tree had fallen. Nelson commanded the land force, which was able to capture Fort San Juan shortly after he became ill. His first full portraiture was painted by Francis Rigaud in 1781, after Nelson had spent a good part of the remainder of 1780 recovering from a probable recurrent bout of malaria or yellow fever while in Costa Rica. The fort forms the background for the slender and rather unremarkable young man in the naval uniform of captain, his hands resting THE TRAFALGAR CHRONICLE 10 Captain Horatio Nelson, Jean Francis Rigaud 1781. (National Maritime Museum)