The Trafalgar Chronicle New Series 6

THE TRAFALGAR CHRONICLE Dedicated to Naval History in the Nelson Era New Series 6 Journal of THE 1805 CLUB Edited by JUdITHE PEARSON, SEANHEUvEL& JOHNROdGAARd In association with The 1805 Club

Text copyright © individual authors 2021 First published in Great Britain in 2021 by Seaforth Publishing, A division of Pen & Sword Books Ltd, 47 Church Street, Barnsley S70 2AS British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 978 1 5267 5966 5 (PAPERBACk) ISBN 978 1 5267 5967 2 (EPUB) ISBN 978 1 5267 5968 9 (kINdLE) All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing of both the copyright owner and the above publisher. The right of the individual contributors to be identified as the authors of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, designs and Patents Act 1988. Pen & Sword Books Limited incorporates the imprints of Atlas, Archaeology, Aviation, discovery, Family History, Fiction, History, Maritime, Military, Military Classics, Politics, Select, Transport, True Crime, Air World, Frontline Publishing, Leo Cooper, Remember When, Seaforth Publishing, The Praetorian Press, Wharncliffe Local History, Wharncliffe Transport, Wharncliffe True Crime and White Owl. designed and typeset in Times New Roman by Mousemat design Printed and bound in the UK by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY

CONTENTS President’s Foreword – Admiral Sir Jonathon Band 5 Editors’ Foreword – Judith E Pearson, Sean Heuvel, and John Rodgaard 6 Articles on the 2021 Theme: Royal Navy Encounters with Indigenous Populations and Enslaved People Governor king of New South Wales and his Maori Guests 1793–1805 9 – Tom d Fremantle Reluctant Partisans: The Slaves of Princess Anne County 21 in the War of 1812 – Christopher Pieczynski The Tailor Prince – Lily Style 33 Captain Nathaniel Portlock – Gerald Holland 47 Biographical Portraits The Watery Maze: With Wolfe and Saunders at Quebec 1759 52 – Barry Gough Political Admiral and Royal Favourite: The Career of Sir Harry Neale, 70 Baronet GCB – Barry Jolly durham’s dramas: A Trafalgar Captain at the Polls 89 – Hilary L Rubinstein Commander Walter Strickland: A Royal Navy Officer 100 in an Age of Transition – Barry Jolly Commodore John Barry: Father of the US Navy – Liam Gaul 116 3

Captain Johan Puke and the Breakout of the Swedish Fleet 128 at viborg 1790 – Christer Hägg Articles of General Interest Pride and Prejudice: Reforms, Rivalries, and the Rise in Status 144 of British Naval Surgeons during the French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1805) – Gerald Stulc Nelson: Leader, Manager, Mentor, Friend – Harold E ‘Pete’ Stark 159 The Officers Who Missed the Battle of Trafalgar – Andrew venn 174 The Bomb vessel: Shore Bombardment in the Georgian Navy 182 – Anthony Bruce Contributors’ Biographies 196 Notes 199 The 1805 Club 232 Colour Plate Section between pages 128 and 129 4

President’s Foreword The 2021 issue of the Trafalgar Chronicle is truly a unique one. Unlike previous editions, the distinction of this issue lies with the individual authors overcoming the consequences of the COvId-19 pandemic. Namely, they submitted their wellresearched products despite lacking access to archives, libraries and museums; all closed to the public as a precaution to avoid spreading the deadly virus. I wish to extend a well-deserved ‘Bravo Zulu’ – well done to them for their purposefulness and creativity in overcoming a truly once in a lifetime set of restrictions. The central theme for the 2021 issue is Georgian Navy encounters with indigenous populations and enslaved people. The editors chose this theme during a planning session in 2019, and little did they know that the following year’s news headlines would be affixed to the global political and social unrest due to racial conflict that started across the US in 2020. These events have produced a re-examination of Western history as it pertains to colonisation, exploration and slavery. The editors’ selected theme has become pertinent to contemporary events in a way they did not foresee. Another aspect of this issue is that it contains contributions by authors from six countries, and in doing so, this particular issue of the Trafalgar Chronicle reinforces its international reputation. This issue also reflects the mission The 1805 Club is now undertaking to become the ‘go to’ association for scholars and enthusiasts of the Georgian maritime era. The Trafalgar Chroniclemirrors the Club’s aim to inspire greater understanding of the achievements of the maritime world of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Also, as with The 1805 Club, the Trafalgar Chronicle takes its name from the iconic Battle of Trafalgar that gave Nelson his acclaimed place in history and confirmed the role of the Royal Navy in asserting its sea power. Through this journal, the reader will see that The 1805 Club is building a global community open to enthusiasts of naval history from all backgrounds, recognising the role of the world’s sailing navies of the Georgian period and promoting their legacy to the modern seafaring age. I wish to convey my hearty congratulations to the editors and to the writers who have contributed to this year’s volume – well done! AdMIRALSIRJONATHONBANdGCBdL Former First Sea Lord President of The 1805 Club 5

Editors’ Foreword The 2021 issue of the Trafalgar Chronicle is unique in two respects. First, this issue contains fourteen contributions by authors from six countries, reflecting the journal’s international appeal. Second, our dedicated authors conducted and submitted their work during a year in which research facilities such as libraries, archives and museums were closed due to the COvId-19 pandemic. Yet, somehow, each contributor managed to send us a well-developed, scholarly product, giving our readers new perspectives, insights and findings concerning the maritime world of the Georgian Era. These authors are to be commended for their persistence and ingenuity. The theme of the 2021 issue is Georgian Navy encounters with indigenous and enslaved populations. We chose this topic during a planning session in 2019. Little did we know that the next year’s headlines would describe political upheaval and social unrest due to racial conflicts that began in the streets of US cities in 2020. These events have generated commentary and social activism across the globe, leading to revised interpretations and opinions regarding the Western history of colonisation, exploration and slavery. Our theme turned out to be relevant to current day events in a way we had not anticipated. We received four excellent articles on our theme. The lead article, by Tom d. Fremantle, tells the story of his ancestor, Philip Gidley king, who sailed to Botany Bay with the First Fleet in 1787, becoming the first Lieutenant Governor of Norfolk Island and the third Governor of New South Wales. king presided over an English penal colony, describing, in his journal, his encounters with Maoris, some of those encounters unforgettably touching. The article is a welcomed follow-on to one about king that Mr Fremantle published in the Trafalgar Chronicle in 2017. He is a member of The 1805 Club and a frequent contributor to this journal. We have three additional articles on the theme: Retired US Navy commander and history professor, Christopher Pieczynski recounts how the British lured slaves away from their American masters’ plantations with the promise of freedom during the War of 1812. Runaway slaves faced a risky choice: any slave who could reach a Royal Navy ship would be granted freedom and passage away from American shores. A slave caught before reaching a Royal Navy ship would face harsh, physical punishment. 6

Founder and Chair of the Emma Hamilton Society, Lily Style, dug into her family history to give us an account of her ancestor, Captain Edward Blanckley RN, who returned from the Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26) with an infant rescued from the rubble. The child was a Burmese prince who would never claim his throne. US Coast Guard operations specialist and historian Gerald Holland tells readers about Captain Nathaniel Portlock, who sailed with Cook and Bligh. Portlock participated in trading expeditions, interacting with Polynesians and the people of the First Nations of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. This issue also contains a variety of biographical sketches of Nelson’s contemporaries. Leading off this section, Professor Emeritus Barry Gough of Canada’s Wilfrid Laurier University writes about vice Admiral Sir Charles Saunders, naval hero of Quebec. Barry Jolly, a historian and former lieutenant commander in the Royal Navy, has contributed two biographies: one on Sir Harry Neale, Baronet GCB, a royal favourite, and one on Commander Walter Strickland, who served in the Royal Navy during a time of sweeping maritime technological advancements. dr Hilary L Rubinstein, of Melbourne, Australia, is the world’s leading biographer of Admiral Sir Philip durham. Her piece details the years in which this former Trafalgar captain became a controversial politician; a Member of Parliament representing the Wiltshire market town of devizes. durham, by the way, was a contemporary of Sir Harry Neale, who was also a Member of Parliament, representing Lymington. Mr Liam Gaul, a local historian of Wexford, Ireland, provides a biography of Commodore John Barry, who was born in Wexford and left Ireland at a young age, becoming the Father of the US Navy under President George Washington. Lastly, Captain Christer Hägg, a retired officer of Sweden’s navy, regales readers with the tale of Captain Johan Puke leading the Swedish fleet in a daring breakout from the Russian blockade at viborg, Sweden (now viborg, Finland) in 1790. Captain Hägg, a member of The 1805 Club and a maritime artist of note, includes two of his own paintings as illustrations – a treat! dr Gerald Stulc, a retired US Navy physician, writes about the history of military medicine. His article about artistic portrayals of Nelson’s illnesses and combat wounds was the featured piece of the 2020 Trafalgar Chronicle. In this issue, we have his physician’s analysis of the status of British naval surgeons during the French Wars 1793–1815. Mr Harold E ‘Pete’ Stark, of Annapolis, Maryland, discusses Nelson’s style as a leader, manager, mentor and friend, based on a letter he wrote to one of his captains, with whom he was not pleased. do you know how many of Nelson's ‘band of brothers’ missed the battle of Trafalgar? Naval history expert Andrew venn, of Portsmouth, England, documents the reasons why nine Royal Navy officers and one French naval EdITORS’ FOREWORd 7

officer never arrived at Trafalgar. Our final article is by Anthony Bruce, a wellpublished Uk military historian. His article investigates the development of the bomb vessel in naval warfare. This article stands as a companion piece to his discussion on the carronade in the 2019 Trafalgar Chronicle. We thank these authors for their acumen as historians, and their expertise in making history exciting and engaging. We admire the depth of their research, their facility with detail, their selection of illustrations, and the quality of their writing. It is a pleasure to work with each one of them. They were all marvellously obliging and co-operative with our questions and suggestions for revisions or clarification. They made our work as editors easy and enjoyable. To our readers: we welcome your comments, questions, ideas, and suggestions about this and future issues. If you like to write and conduct historic research about all manner of things pertaining to the Royal Navy and other navies of the Georgian era, send us a proposal and/or get on our mailing list of potential contributors. The theme for the 2022 issue will be Scientific and technological advances in the navies of the Georgian Era. Contact us at Please tell your friends and colleagues about the Trafalgar Chronicle. Our publisher, Seaforth Publishing, is happy to issue subscriptions to individuals as well as organisations, universities, institutes and libraries. If you aren’t a member of The 1805 Club, please join by completing an application at our website: Judith E Pearson, Phd Burke, virginia John Rodgaard, Captain USN, Ret Melbourne, Florida Sean Heuvel, Phd Williamsburg, virginia May 2021 THE TRAFALGAR CHRONICLE 8

Governor king of New South Wales and his Maori Guests 1793–1805 Tom D Fremantle In 1994 a delegation of Maori from the Bay of Islands (New Zealand) arrived on Norfolk Island 750 miles to the north. They brought with them gifts, which are now on display in the island’s little museum to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the enforced visit of two of their ancestors to Norfolk Island where, for six months, they were guests of the Lieutenant Governor, Philip Gidley king. king’s personal contribution to the Maori was recognised at the time and clearly it was valued highly enough to remain in the collective memory for an impressively long time. In 1787 Lieutenant Philip Gidley king had been appointed second lieutenant onboard the sixth-rate HMS Sirius (22), the frigate...,1 the frigate adapted as flagship for Captain Arthur Phillip, who had been commissioned as Captain General and Governor to lead an expedition of eleven ships to create a convict settlement at Botany Bay in New South Wales.2 king was among the first officers to land at Botany Bay in January 1788 and reported in his journal the first contact that he and Governor Phillip had with the natives: … soon after discovered a number of ye natives who halloo’d & made signs for us to return to our boats, having only three Marines with me & Lieut dawes I advanced before them unarmed presenting some beads & Ribbands, two of the Natives advanced armed, but would not come close to me, I then dropt ye beads & baize which I held.3 9 Captain Philip Gidley King, Lieutenant Governor Norfolk Island, 1788–1796, Governor New South Wales 1800–1806. Artist Unknown. (Mitchell Library Sydney, New South Wales)

This first exchange was initially quite peaceful but after a short while one of the natives threw a lance, not directly at the landing party, but to one side and with such force that king ‘required an exertion to pull it out’. This and subsequent meetings between foreigners and natives continued with a mixture of threats and gifts. At one point king noted in his journal that after the native threw a lance, king ordered a marine to fire with powder only. king was avoiding injury to any of the natives while demonstrating that his men had the ability to defend themselves if necessary. In his journal he expressed his opinion that ‘I must do them the justice to say that I believe them to be concientiously [sic] honest.’4 When they found we were not disposed to part with any more things, they entered into conversation with us, which was very fully interpreted by very plain Signs they wanted to know of what sex we were, which they explained by pointing where it was distinguishable, As they took us for women, not having our beards grown, I ordered one of the people to undeceive them in this particular when they made a great shout of Admiration, & pointing to the shore, which was but ten yards from us we saw a great number of Women & Girls with infant children on their THE TRAFALGAR CHRONICLE 10 The First Fleet entering Botany Bay January 1788, by Lieutenant William Bradley RN. From the Journal of Lt William Bradley of HMS Sirius 1786–92. (Caird Library © National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London)